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Book, One Author

Book, Two Authors

Book, More Than Two Authors

Book, Editor

Book, Corporate Author

Book, Anthology

Reference Book Article, Signed

Reference Book Article, Unsigned

Magazine Article, Signed

Magazine Article, Unsigned

Magazine Article, Online

Sacred Texts

Letter to the Editor

Editorial

Lecture or Public Address

Personal Interview

Newspaper Article, Signed

Newspaper Article, Unsigned

Newspaper Article, Online

Online Database, Signed

Online Database, Unsigned

Website (Personal) With Author

Website (Personal) Without Author

Website (Corporate/Organization)

Vertical File

Videocassette or DVD

Television Program

Radio Program

* In-Text Citation

* Two Works, Same Author

* Formatting Notes

* Example "Works Cited" Page


* Link to Works Cited for this Web Page.

Book, One Author:

Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal.

IndentNew York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Print.

Author. Book Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

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Book, Two Authors:

Combs, Cindy C. and Martin Slann. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. New York: Facts on File, 2002. Print.

Authors. Book Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

NOTE: Second author's name is: first name, last name.

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Book, More Than Two Authors:

Delfakis, Helen, D., et al. Food Service Management. Cincinnati, OH:

IndentSouth-Western Publishing, 1992. Print.

First Author, et al. Book Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

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Book, Editor:

Hollander, Zander, ed. The Complete Book of Baseball. New York: Penguin Books, LTD., 1994. Print.

Editor. Book Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

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Book, Corporate Author:

American Medical Asociation. The Home Medical Encyclopedia, New York:

IndentReader's Digest Association, 1989. Print.

Organization. Book Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

NOTE: A corporate author is a group or organization.

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Book, Anthology:

Kipling, Rudyard. "The Man Who Would Be King." The Best Short Stories of Rudyard Kipling. Ed. Randall Jarrell.

IndentGarden City, NY: Hanover House, 1961. 128-154. Print.

Author. "Chapter Title." Book Title. Editor. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date. Page Numbers. Print.

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Reference Book Article, Signed:

Tardif, Claude. "Maple Syrup." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. 188-189. Print.

Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Page Number(s). Print.

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Reference Book Article, Unsigned:

"Maple Syrup." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995. 188-189. Print.

"Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Page Number(s). Print.

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Magazine Article, Signed:

Davis, Wade. "Deep North." National Geographic Mar. 2004: 102-121. Print.

Author. "Article Title." Magazine Title Copyright Month Year: Page Number(s). Print.

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the magazine.

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Magazine Article, Unsigned:

"Deep North." National Geographic Mar. 2004: 102-121. Print.

"Article Title." Magazine Title Copyright Month Year: Page Number(s). Print.

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the magazine.

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Magazine Article, Online:

Morgan, Fiona. "Banning the Bullies." Salon.com 15 Mar. 2001. Web. 29 Jul 2003.

Indent <http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2001/03/15bullying/index.html>.

Author. "Article Title." Name of Website Issue Date. Web. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTES:

There is no punctuation after the name of the magazine.

The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Sacred Texts:

Holy Bible: New Living Translation. New York: Tyndale Press, 1998.

Title. City, State: Publisher, Copyright Date.

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Letter to the Editor:

Leigh, Brendan. Letter. Portland Press Herald 07 Feb. 2004: A14.

Author. Letter. Newspaper Title Issue Date: Page Number.

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the newspaper.

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Editorial:

"Laptops for Students." Editorial. Portland Press Herald 07 June 2003: A14.

"Editorial Title." Editorial. Newspaper Title Issue Date: Page Number(s).

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the newspaper.

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Newspaper Article, Signed:

O'Driscoll, Patrick. "Winter Socks Northeast with Late-Season Snowstorm."

IndentUSA Today 21 Apr. 2003: 3+.

Author. "Article Title." Newspaper Title Issue Date: Beginning Page Number.

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the newspaper.

NOTE: Use a plus sign (+) after the page number if the article does not appear on consecutive pages.

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Newspaper Article, Unsigned:

"Winter Socks Northeast with Late-Season Snowstorm." USA Today 21 Apr. 2003: 3+.

"Article Title." Newspaper Title Issue Date: Beginning Page Number.

NOTE: There is no punctuation after the name of the newspaper.

NOTE: Use a plus sign (+) after the page number if the article does not appear on consecutive pages.

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Newspaper Article, Online:

Barabak, Mark Z. "Californians Endorse New Power Plants. Environmental News."

IndentLos Angeles Times 01 Jan. 2004. 31 Mar. 2004.

Indent<http://www.latimes.com/news/timespoll/sate/lat_0110010217.htm>.

Author. "Article Title." Newspaper Title Issue Date. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTES:

There is no punctuation after the name of the newspaper.

The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Online Database Signed:

Hamilton, Tish. "Dangerous Games." Good Housekeeping. Jan. 2004: 91-92. Academic Search Premiere.

IndentEBSCOhost. Maine State Library, Augusta, ME. 11 May. 2003.

Indent<http://libraries.maine.edu/mainedatabases/>.

Author. "Article Title." Name of Magazine. Issue Date: Page Numbers. Name of Database.

IndentName of the Service. Name, Location of Library. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Online Database Unsigned:

"Dangerous Games." Good Housekeeping. Jan. 2004: 91-92. Academic Search Premiere.

 

IndentEBSCOhost. Maine State Library, Augusta, ME. 31 Mar. 2004.

Indent<http://libraries.maine.edu/mainedatabases/>.

"Article Title." Name of Magazine. Issue Date of Magazine: Page Numbers. Name of Database.

IndentName of the Service. Name, Location of Library. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Website with Author:

Proudfoot, Bill. Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War. 2002. 18 Jan. 2004.

Indent<http://www.civilwarletters.com/home.html>.

Author. Name of Website. Date of Last Update. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Website without Author:

Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War. 2002. 18 Jan. 2004.

Indent<http://www.civilwarletters.comhome.html>.

Name of Website. Date of Last Update. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Website Corporate/Organizational:

United States. U.S. General Services Administration. The U.S. Government's Official Web Portal.

Indent 01 Jan. 2004. 27 Apr. 2003.

Indent<http://www.firstgov.org/>.

Name of Corporation or Organization. Name of Website. Date of Last Update. Date of Access.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Vertical File:

Connor, Jack. "Empty Skies: Where Have All the Songbirds Gone?"

IndentEndangered Species. Vertical File. July/August 1988. 14 Oct. 2003.

Author. "Title of Item." File Subject Heading. Vertical File. Date (if available). Date of Access.

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Videocassette:

Chocolat. Dir. Lasse Hallstrom. Perf. Juliette Binoche, Judi Dench, Alfred Molina,

IndentLena Olin, and Johnny Depp. Videocassette. Miramax, 2001.

Movie Title. Director's Name. Performers' Names. Videocassette. Name of Studio. Copyright Date.

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DVD:

Chocolat. Dir. Lasse Hallstrom. Perf. Juliette Binoche, Judi Dench, Alfred Molina,

IndentLena Olin, and Johnny Depp. DVD. Miramax, 2001.

Movie Title. Director's Name. Performers' Names. DVD. Name of Studio. Copyright Date.

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Television Program:

"Monkey Trial." American Experience. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 17 Sep. 2003.

"Title of Episode." Program Title. Television Network Identification.

IndentTelevision Station Identification, City. Broadcast Date.

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Radio Program:

"This American Life." All Things Considered. National Public Radio.

Indent WMEA, Portland. 09 July 2003. 20 Aug 2003.

Indent http://www.mpr.org/programs/pt/features/4a/soukhovetski.02.html.

"Title of Episode," Program Title. Radio Network Identification.

IndentRadio Station Identification, City. Broadcast Date.

Indent<Complete URL Address>.

NOTE: The URL address is written on its own line(s).

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Lecture or Public Address:

Daniels, Kyle. "A Seatbelt Could Save Your Life." Ronald E. Dolloff Auditorium, Waldoboro.

Indent04 Aug. 2003.

Name of Speaker. "Title of Lecture/Address." Location of Lecture/Address, City.

IndentDate of Lecture.

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Personal Interview:

Bond, James. Personal Interview. 21 June 2003.

Name of Person Being Interviewed. Personal Interview. Date of Interview.

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Two Works By the Same Author:

Paulsen, Gary. Brian's Crossing. New York: Delacorte Press, 1999.

---. The River. New York: Dell Publishing, 1991.

---. The Schernoff Discoveries. Chicago: Delacorte Press, 1997.

NOTE: If your list of Works Cited includes two or more works by the same author,

use the author's name only after the first entry. For other entries use three hypens

followed by a period. List the titles in alphabetical order.

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Formatting Notes:

Plagiarism is a serious offense. You must give credit every time credit is required;

otherwise, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism occurs when:

INDENT(1) you fail to cite quotations and borrowed ideas,

INDENT(2) you fail to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks, and

INDENT(3) you fail to put summaries and paraphrases into your own words.

- The Works Cited heading is centered.

- The Works Cited list is arranged alphabetically.

- Use the first letter of each entry (regardless of source),

INDENTwhether it's an author's last name or the title.

- Left justify the first line of each entry. Indent (five [5] spaces) all lines that follow for that entry.

- Double-spacing is used throughout.

- Abbreviate the names of the months except May, June, and July.

- A URL address is broken after a slash. No hyphen is inserted.

- The in-text crediting (in the body of your paper) must match

INDENTthe sources listed on the Works Cited page.

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IN-TEXT CITATION REVIEW

NOTE: The MLA system of in-text citations depends heavily on authors' names and page numbers.

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BASIC RULES...

When the Author is Named in Signal Phrase

When the Author is Named in Parentheses

When the Author is Unknown

When the Page Number is Unknown

VARIATIONS OF BASIC RULES

Two or More Titles by the Same Author

Two or Three Authors

Four or More Authors

A Corporate Author or Government Agency

Authors with the Same Last Name

Indirect Source: Quote From Another Source

Encyclopedia or Dictionary

Multivolume Work

MORE VARIATIONS OF BASIC RULES

Two or More Works

An Entire Work

Work In an Anthology

Literary Works Without Parts or Line Numbers

Verse Plays or Poems

Novels with Numbered Divisions

Sacred Texts

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In-Text Citation When the Author is Named in Signal Phase:

>> Introduce material being cited with a single phrase that includes the author's name. In doing so you prepare the reader for the source and allows for a brief parenthetical reference.

Example:

Christine Haughney reports that shortly after Japan made it illegal to use a handheld phone while driving, "accidents caused by using the phones dropped by 75 percent" (121).

* The signal phrase - "Christine Haughney reports that" - names the author: the parenthetical reference gives the page number in which the quoted words are found.

* The period follows the parenthetical reference.

* If a quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation point, leave the end punctuation inside the quotation mark and add a period after the parentheses: ". . .?" (121).

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In-Text Citation When the Author is Named in Parentheses:

>> If the signal phrase does not name the author, put the author's last name in parentheses together with the page number.

Example:

Most states do not keep adequate records on the number of times cell phones are a factor in accidents; as of December 2000, only ten states were trying to keep such records (Davis 236).

* Use no punctuation between the name and the page number.

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In-Text Citation When the Author is Unknown:

>> Use either the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses. Titles of books are underlined; titles of articles and other short works are put in quotation marks.

Example:

As of 2001, at least three hundred towns and municipalities had considered legislation regulating use of cell phones while driving ("Lawmakers" 112).

* Caution: Before assuming that an Internet source has no author, take some time to investigate. It may simply be hard to locate. Check the home page of the website for additional clues.

* If the source has no author, but you know the name of the corporate or organizational entity, name the corporation or the organization as the author.

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In-Text Citation When the Page Number is Unknown:

>> You may leave out page numbers if page numbers are not used in the work. An Internet source would be a good example.

Example #1:

The California Highway Patrol opposes restrictions on the use of phones while driving, claiming that distracted drivers can already be prosecuted (Jacobs).

Example #2:

According to Jacobs, the California Highway Patrol opposes restrictions on the use of phones while driving, claiming that distracted drivers can already be prosecuted.

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In-Text Citation When There are Two or More Titles by the Same Author:

>> If your list of works cited includes two or more titles by the same author, mention the title of the work in the signal phrase or include a short version of the title in the parentheses.

Example:

On December 6, 2000, reporter Jamie Stockwell wrote that distracted driver Jason Jones had been charged with "two counts of vehicular manslaughter...in the deaths of John and Carole Hall" ("Driving Distracted" 185). The next day Stockwell reported the judge's ruling: Jones "was convicted of negligent driving and fined $500, the maximum penalty allowed" (Stockwell, "Negligent Drivers" 87).

* When using both the author's name and a short title, separate them with a comma (as shown in the second citation).

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In-Text Citation When There are Two or Three Authors:

>> Name the two authors in the signal phrase or include their last names in the parenthetical reference.

Example #1:

Smith and Jones found that "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (127).

Example #2:

According to police reports, "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (Smith and Jones 127).

>> When three authors are named, separate the names with commas.

Example #1:

Smith, Jones, and Miller found that "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (127).

Example #2:

According to police reports, "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (Smith, Jones, and Miller 127).

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In-Text Citation When There are Four or More Authors:

>> Name all the authors or include only the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

Example #1:

Smith, Jones, Martin, and Miller found that "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (127).

Example #2:

According to police reports, "the risk of collision when using a cellular telephone was four times higher than the risk when a cellular telephone was not being used" (Smith et al. 127).

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In-Text Citation for a Corporate Author or Government Agency:

>> When the author is a corporation or organization, name the corporate author either in the signal phrase or in the parentheses.

Example 1:

Researchers at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis found that the risks of driving while phoning were small compared with other driving risks (248-251).

Example 2:

Researchers have found that the risks of driving while phoning were small compared with other driving risks (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis 248-251).

>> When the author is a government agency, you must name the government along with the name of the department in your in-text citation.

Example 1:

Government researchers at the United State Department of Transportation found that the risks of driving while phoning were small compared with other driving risks (248-251).

Example 2:

Government researchers have found that the risks of driving while phoning were small compared with other driving risks (United States Department of Transportation 248-251).

* In the list of Works Cited, a Federal government agency will be listed alphabetically under "U" for "United States".

* In the list of Works Cited, a state government agency will be listed alphabetically as well. (Ex.: "M" for "Maine Department of Transporation").

* County, city, or town agencies will be cited using the same method.

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In-Text Citation When There are Authors with the Same Last Name:

>> If your list of works cited includes works by authors with the same last name, include the author's first name in the signal phrase or first initial in the parentheses.

Example 1:

Daniel Smith estimates of the number of accidents caused by distracted drivers vary because little evidence is being collected (76).

Example 2:

Estimates of the number of accidents caused by distracted drivers vary because little evidence is being collected (D. Smith 76).

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In-Text Citation When an Indirect Source is Used (A Quote from Another Source):

>> When a writer's or a speaker's quoted words appear in a source written by someone else, begin the citation with the abbreviation "qtd. in"

Example:

According to Richard Retting, "As the comforts of home and the efficiency of the office creep into the automobile, it is becoming increasingly attractive as a work space" (qtd. in "Car Digest" 87).

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In-Text Citation for an Encyclopedia or Dictionary:

>> List an encyclopedia or dictionary alphabetically under the word or entry that you consulted, not under the title of the reference work itself. You must mention the word or entry in your parenthetical reference.

Dictionary Example:

The word crocodile has a surprisingly complex etymology ("Crocodile").

Encyclopedia Example:

A pioneer planter, Johnny Appleseed, became a folk hero for planting and giving away apple seeds ("Appleseed, Johnny").

* No page number is required, since readers can easily look up the word or entry.

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In-Text Citation for a Multivolume Work:

>> If your paper cites more than one volume of a multivolue work, identify the volume you've used, followed by a colon and the page numbers.

Example:

In his studies of gifted children, Johnson describes a pattern of accelerated language development (4:152).

* If your paper cites only one volume, you will include the volume number in the list of works cited and will not need to include it in the parentheses.

Example:

In her studies of cell phone use and driving, Henderson describes patterns of cell phone use and accidents (256).

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In-Text Citation for Two or More Works:

>> To cite more than one source, separate the citations with a semicolon.

Example:

The dangers of using a cell phone while driving have been well documented (Gould 42; Cutler 87; O'Hara 102).

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In-Text Citation for an Entire Work:

>> To cite an entire work, use the name of the author in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.

Example 1:

Fleming accurately describes the use of cell phones and teenage driving habits.

Example 2:

Researchers accurately describe the use of cell phones and teenage driving habits (Fleming 144).

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In-Text Citation for a Work in an Anthology:

>> Put the name of the author of the work (not the editor of the anthology) in the signal phrase or the parentheses.

Example 1:

In "Hands Free Driving," Mary Mitchell, a driver education instructor, describes the benefits of driving without distraction (250).

Example 1:

In "Hands Free Driving," the benefits of driving without distraction are described (Mitchell 250).

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In-Text Citation for Literary Works Without Parts or Line Numbers:

>> Many literary works, such as most short stories and many novels and plays, do not have parts or line numbers that you can refer to. In such cases, simply cite the page number.

Example 1:

At the end of Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour," Mrs. Mallard drops dead upon learning that her husband is alive. In the final irony of the story, doctors report that she has died of a "joy that kills" (25).

Example 1:

At the end of "The Story of an Hour," Mrs. Mallard drops dead upon learning that her husband is alive. In the final irony of the story, doctors report that she has died of a "joy that kills" (Chopin 25).

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In-Text Citation for Verse Plays or Poems:

>> For verse plays, give the act, scene, and line numbers. Separate the numbers with periods.

Example for Verse Plays:

In Shakespeare's King Lear, Gloucester, blinded for suspected treason, learns a profound lesson from his tragic experience: "A man may see how this world goes / with no eyes" (4.2.148-49).

>> For a poem, cite the part and line numbers.

Example for Poems:

When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men "mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil" (10.209-11).

* For poems without parts, use line numbers. The parenthetical reference would be: (lines 5-8).

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In-Text Citation for a Novel with Numbered Divisions:

>> When a novel has numbered divisions, put the page numbers first, followed by a semicolon, and then indicate the book part, or chapter in which the passage may be found. Use abbreviations such as "bk." and "ch."

Example:

One of Kingsolver's narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is "a sheer tapestry of justice" because her chances of finding a boyfriend are "dull and void" (117; bk.2, ch. 10).

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In-Text Citation for Sacred Texts:

>> When citing a scared text such as the Bible or the Koran, name the edition you are using in your works cited entry. In your parenthetical reference, give the book, chapter, and verse, separated by periods.

Example:

Consider the words of Solomon: "If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink" (Holy Bible, Prov.25.21).

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Works Cited for this Web Page:

Hacker, D. (2004). Instructor's edition: rules for writers. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Modern Language Association, (2004). Retrieved Apr 07, 2004, from http://www.mla.org.

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